The aim of this article was to investigate the role of intestinal lymphatic transport in the oral bioavailability of two structurally similar synthetic lipophilic cannabinoids: dexanabinol and PRS-211,220. For this purpose, the long chain triglyceride (LCT) solubility and affinity to chylomicrons ex vivo of both cannabinoids were evaluated. Their oral bioavailability was assessed in rats following administration in a lipid-free and a LCT-based formulation. The intestinal lymphatic transport of these two molecules was also directly measured in a freely moving rat model. LCT solubility of dexanabinol and PRS-211,220 was 7.9 ± 0.2 and 95.8 ± 5.3 mg/g, respectively. The uptake by chylomicrons was moderate (31.6 ± 5.2%) and high (66.1 ± 2.4%), respectively. The bioavailability of dexanabinol (37%) was not affected by LCT solution, whereas administration of PRS-211,220 in LCT improved the absolute oral bioavailability three-fold (from 13 to 35%) in comparison to the lipid-free formulation. The intestinal lymphatic transport of dexanabinol and PRS-211,220 was 7.5 ± 0.8 and 60.7 ± 6.8% of the absorbed dose, respectively. In conclusion, despite structural similarity and similar lipophilicity, dexanabinol and PRS-211,220 exhibited a very diverse pattern of oral absorption, and the lymphatic system played quite a different role in the oral bioavailability of these molecules. The low lymphatic transport of dexanabinol is likely driven by relatively lower affinity to chylomicrons and lower LCT solubility.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This paper is a part of Pavel Gershkovich's PhD dissertation. This study was supported by Israeli Consortium of Pharmalogica. We would like to thank Hava Kleiman, Constantin Itin and Joseph Fanous for excellent technical assistance and Dr. Josh Backon for constructive comments. Prof. Amnon Hoffman is affiliated with the David R. Bloom Center for Pharmacy at The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
- Lymphatic transport