Different ortho and para electronic effects on hydrolysis and cytotoxicity of diamino bis(Phenolato) "Salan" Ti(IV) complexes

Dani Peri, Sigalit Meker, Cesar M. Manna, Edit Y. Tshuva

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Bis(isopropoxo) Ti(IV) complexes of diamino bis(phenolato) "salan" ligands were prepared, their hydrolysis in 1:9 water/THF solutions was investigated, and their cytotoxicity toward colon HT-29 and ovarian OVCAR-1 cells was measured. In particular, electronic effects at positions ortho and para to the binding phenolato unit were analyzed. We found that para substituents of different electronic features, including Me, Cl, OMe, and NO2, have very little influence on hydrolysis rate, and all para-substituted ortho-H complexes hydrolyze slowly to give O-bridged clusters with a t1/2 of 1 - 2 h for isopropoxo release. Consequently, no clear cytotoxicity pattern is observed as well, where the largest influence of para substituents appears to be of a steric nature. These complexes exhibit IC 50 values of 2-18 μM toward the cells analyzed, with activity which is mostly higher than those of Cp2TiCl2, (bzac) 2Ti(OiPr)2 and cisplatin. On the contrary, major electronic effects are observed for substituents at the ortho position, with an influence that exceeds even that of steric hindrance. Ortho-chloro or -bromo substituted compounds possess extremely high hydrolytic stability where no major isopropoxo release as isopropanol occurs for days. In accordance, very high cytotoxicity toward colon and ovarian cells is observed for ortho-Cl and -Br complexes, with IC50 values of 1 - 8μM, where the most cytotoxic complexes are the ortho-Cl-para-Me and ortho-Br-para-Me derivatives. In this series of ortho-substituted complexes, the halogen radius is of lesser influence both on hydrolysis and on cytotoxicity, while OMe substituents do not impose similar effect of hydrolytic stability and cytotoxicity enhancement. Therefore, hydrolytic stability and cytotoxic activity are clearly intertwined, and thus this family of readily available Ti(IV) salan complexes exhibiting both features in an enhanced manner is highly attractive for further exploration.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)1030-1038
Number of pages9
JournalInorganic Chemistry
Issue number3
StatePublished - 7 Feb 2011


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