Weight loss interventions, including dietary changes, pharmacotherapy, or bariatric surgery, prevent many of the adverse consequences of obesity, and may also confer intervention-specific benefits beyond those seen with decreased weight alone. We compared the molecular effects of different interventions on liver metabolism to understand the mechanisms underlying these benefits. Male rats on a high-fat, high-sucrose diet underwent sleeve gastrectomy (SG) or intermittent fasting with caloric restriction (IF-CR), achieving equivalent weight loss. The interventions were compared to ad-libitum (AL)-fed controls. Analysis of liver and blood metabolome and transcriptome revealed distinct and sometimes contrasting metabolic effects between the two interventions. SG primarily influenced one-carbon metabolic pathways, whereas IF-CR increased de novo lipogenesis and glycogen storage. These findings suggest that the unique metabolic pathways affected by SG and IF-CR contribute to their distinct clinical benefits, with bariatric surgery potentially influencing long-lasting changes through its effect on one-carbon metabolism.
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