Difficult-to-treat inflammatory bowel disease: results from an international consensus meeting

Tommaso Lorenzo Parigi, Ferdinando D'Amico, Maria T. Abreu, Axel Dignass, Iris Dotan, Fernando Magro, Anne M. Griffiths, Vipul Jairath, Marietta Iacucci, Gerassimos J. Mantzaris, Colm O'Morain, Walter Reinisch, David B. Sachar, Dan Turner, Takayuki Yamamoto, David T. Rubin, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Subrata Ghosh, Silvio Danese*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Many patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have persistent symptoms and disease activity despite the best available medical or surgical treatments. These patients are commonly referred to as having difficult-to-treat IBD and need additional therapeutic strategies. However, the absence of standard definitions has impeded clinical research efforts and comparisons of data. Under the guidance of the endpoints cluster of the International Organization for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, we held a consensus meeting to propose a common operative definition for difficult-to-treat IBD. 16 participants from 12 countries voted on 20 statements covering various elements of difficult-to-treat IBD, such as failure of medical and surgical treatments, disease phenotypes, and specific complaints from patients. “Agreement” was defined as at least 75% consensus. The group agreed that difficult-to-treat IBD is defined by the failure of biologics and advanced small molecules with at least two different mechanisms of action, or postoperative recurrence of Crohn's disease after two surgical resections in adults, or one in children. In addition, chronic antibiotic-refractory pouchitis, complex perianal disease, and comorbid psychosocial complications that impair disease management also qualified as difficult-to-treat IBD. Adoption of these criteria could serve to standardise reporting, guide enrolment in clinical trials, and help identify candidates for enhanced treatment strategies.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)853-859
Number of pages7
JournalThe Lancet Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2023

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