Difficulties in Career Decision Making and Self-Evaluations: A Meta-Analysis

Shagini Udayar*, Nimrod Levin, Yuliya Lipshits-Braziler, Shékina Rochat, Annamaria Di Fabio, Itamar Gati, Laurent Sovet, Jérôme Rossier

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


This meta-analysis examined the association between two types of difficulties in career decision making—indecision and indecisiveness—and four types of self-evaluations: generalized self-efficacy, process-related self-efficacy, content-related self-efficacy, and self-esteem. Analyses were conducted on data from 86 studies (N = 54,160): Process-related self-efficacy showed stronger negative associations with career indecision than did generalized self-efficacy, content-related self-efficacy, or self-esteem. In contrast, self-esteem showed stronger negative associations with indecisiveness than with career indecision. The second part of this meta-analysis focused on differential associations between two types of self-evaluations (process-related self-efficacy and self-esteem) and the three major clusters of difficulties in career decision making (lack of readiness, lack of information, and inconsistent information). Based on 19 studies (N = 7,953), the findings showed that process-related self-efficacy was strongly and negatively associated with lack of information and inconsistent information. In contrast, self-esteem was only weakly related to the three major clusters of difficulties in career decision making. In showing that each type of self-evaluation was more strongly associated with certain types and causes of difficulties in career decision making, the present article highlighted the importance of self-evaluations in the career decision-making process.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)608-635
Number of pages28
JournalJournal of Career Assessment
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: The contribution of Shagini Udayar and Jérôme Rossier was made partly within the framework of the National Centre of Competence in Research-LIVES financed by the Swiss National Science Foundation (grant no 51NF40-160590); Itamar Gati was supported partly by the Samuel and Esther Melton Chair.

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2020.


  • career indecision
  • indecisiveness
  • meta-analysis
  • self-efficacy
  • self-esteem


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