Amaranthus tuberculatus is the most common weed in soybean and corn in the USA and Canada. In Israel, it has been a minor riverbank weed. However, in recent years, growing densities of this plant have been observed in field crops, orchards, and roadsides. Between 2017 and 2022, we surveyed the distribution of A. tuberculatus and collected seeds for further study. We identified three main distribution zones in Israel: the Jezreel Valley, Hula Valley, and Coastal Plain. Most of the populations were found near water sources, fishponds, barns, dairies, or bird-feeding sites, suggesting the involvement of imported grain in introducing A. tuberculatus to Israel. Populations were screened for their responses to various post-emergence herbicides (i.e., ALS, EPSPS, PPO, HPPD, and PSII inhibitors). Several populations from the Jezreel Valley were found to be putatively resistant to ALS, EPSPS, and PPO inhibitors. The responses of those populations to trifloxysulfuron, glyphosate, and carfentrazone-ethyl were also studied. A single ALS-, EPSPS- and PPO-resistant plant was vegetatively propagated to create a clonal population, which was treated with foramsulfuron, glyphosate, and carfentrazone-ethyl. No resistance to PSII or HPPD inhibitors was observed, but resistance to herbicides that inhibit ALS, EPSPS, and PPO was observed. A clonal propagation assay revealed the existence of a population that was resistant to ALS, EPSPS, and PPO inhibitors. Since the local A. tuberculatus populations have not been exposed to herbicide selection pressure, these traits probably reached Israel through seed-mediated gene flow via imported grain.
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- acetolactate synthase (ALS)
- gene transfer
- protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)
- seed-mediated gene flow