Double freezing of bovine semen

Joseph Saragusty*, Haim Gacitua, Yoel Zeron, Israel Rozenboim, Amir Arav

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


Fertility of bull spermatozoa cryopreserved in large volume by directional freezing technique, thawed, repackaged in straws and refrozen over liquid nitrogen vapor (double freezing, DF) was compared to conventional single freezing in straws (CF). Semen was collected from 6 bulls, 4 of which were selected for the field trial. Each semen collection was split into two parts, one frozen by CF and the other by DF. In vitro semen evaluations included motility (fresh, upon thawing and after 3 h incubation at 37 °C), viability and acrosome integrity. A total of 3610 cows and heifers were randomly inseminated by either CF or DF at about equal numbers. In vitro sperm analysis indicated no difference between CF and directional freezing in large volume and both were superior to DF (P < 0.001). Between-bull variations in fresh semen and in their reaction to CF or DF were apparent. Logistic regression analysis revealed that freezing method, bull, parity and inseminating technician, all had significant effect on pregnancy outcome (P ≤ 0.001 for all). Conception rate (CR) was 32.98% for CF and 28.05% for DF. Only in one bull conception rate by CF was significantly superior to DF (P < 0.05). When divided into heifers, primi- and pluriparous cows, only the difference in CR between the pluriparous cows was significant (P = 0.005). In conclusion, acceptable CR can be achieved by DF technique. These can be improved by selecting suitable bulls. The DF technique can be utilized in storage, sperm sexing and genome resource banking.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)10-17
Number of pages8
JournalAnimal Reproduction Science
Issue number1-4
StatePublished - Oct 2009


  • Artificial insemination
  • Conception rate
  • Cryopreservation
  • Large volume freezing
  • Parity


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