Dressed vs. pairwise states, and the geometric phase of monopoles and charges

Csaba Csáki, Zi Yu Dong, Ofri Telem*, John Terning, Shimon Yankielowicz

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


We construct the Faddeev-Kulish dressed multiparticle states of electrically and magnetically charged particles, incorporating the effects of real and virtual soft photons. We calculate the properties of such dressed states under Lorentz transformations, and find that they can be identified with the pairwise multi-particle states that transform under the pairwise little group. The shifts in the dressing factors under Lorentz transformations are finite and have a simple geometric interpretation. Using the transformation properties of the dressed states we also present a novel, fully quantum field theoretic derivation of the geometric (Berry) phase obtained by an adiabatic rotation of the Dirac string, and also of the Dirac quantization condition. For half integer pairwise helicity, we show that these multiparticle states have flipped spin-statistics, reproducing the surprising fact that fermions can be made out of bosons.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number211
JournalJournal of High Energy Physics
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s).


  • Nonperturbative Effects
  • Scattering Amplitudes
  • Solitons Monopoles and Instantons
  • Wilson, ’t Hooft and Polyakov loops


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