Drivers for the emergence and re-emergence of vector-borne protozoal and bacterial diseases

S. Harrus*, G. Baneth

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

185 Scopus citations


In recent years, vector-borne parasitic and bacterial diseases have emerged or re-emerged in many geographical regions causing global health and economic problems that involve humans, livestock, companion animals and wild life. The ecology and epidemiology of vector-borne diseases are affected by the interrelations between three major factors comprising the pathogen, the host (human, animal or vector) and the environment. Important drivers for the emergence and spread of vector-borne parasites include habitat changes, alterations in water storage and irrigation habits, atmospheric and climate changes, immunosuppression by HIV, pollution, development of insecticide and drug resistance, globalization and the significant increase in international trade, tourism and travel. War and civil unrest, and governmental or global management failure are also major contributors to the spread of infectious diseases. The improvement of epidemic understanding and planning together with the development of new diagnostic molecular techniques in the last few decades have allowed researchers to better diagnose and trace pathogens, their origin and routes of infection, and to develop preventive public health and intervention programs. Health care workers, physicians, veterinarians and biosecurity officers should play a key role in future prevention of vector-borne diseases. A coordinated global approach for the prevention of vector-borne diseases should be implemented by international organizations and governmental agencies in collaboration with research institutions.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)1309-1318
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal for Parasitology
Issue number11-12
StatePublished - Oct 2005


  • Bacteria
  • Emergence
  • Protozoa
  • Re-emergence
  • Spread
  • Vector-borne


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