Dysfunctional thinking and difficulties in career decision making

Tali Kleiman, Itamar Gati*, Gary Peterson, James Sampson, Robert Reardon, Janet Lenz

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

62 Scopus citations


The present study examined the relationships between two measures of career readiness and difficulties-the Career Thoughts Inventory (CTI) and the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ)-as well as the relations between these measures and the individual's degree of decidedness regarding his or her career plans. A total of 192 university students enrolled in a career-planning class filled out both questionnaires. As hypothesized, the two measures overlapped significantly. There was a highly significant correlation (corrected for attenuation) between the total scores of the questionnaires (r = .82), but the correlations between the questionnaires' subscales varied between -.03 and .83. Both the CTI and the CDDQ distinguish among individuals at different stages of the career decision-making process. As hypothesized, participants with a higher degree of decidedness reported lower levels of difficulties. Implications of the unique features of each of the measures for career-related interventions and further research are discussed.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)312-331
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Career Assessment
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 2004


  • CDDQ
  • CTI
  • Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire
  • Career Thoughts Inventory
  • Career decision making
  • Career indecision
  • Career readiness


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