Grapevines are susceptible and responsive to their surrounding environment. Factors such as climate region and terroir are known to affect polyphenolic compounds in wine and therefore, its quality. The uniqueness of the terroir in Israel is the variety of soil types and the climatic conditions, ranging from Mediterranean to arid climates. Thus, understanding the effects of climate on grapevine performance in Israel may be a test case for the effect of climate change on grapevine at other areas in the future. First, we present a preliminary survey (2012–2014) in different climate zones and terroirs, which showed that trans-resveratrol concentrations in Merlot and Shiraz were high, while those of Cabernet Sauvignon were significantly lower. A further comprehensive countrywide survey (2016) of Merlot wines from 62 vineyards (53 wineries) compared several phenolic compounds’ concentrations between five areas of different climate and terroir. Results show a connection between trans-resveratrol concentrations, variety, and terroir properties. Furthermore, we show that transresveratrol concentrations are strongly correlated to humidity levels at springtime, precipitation, and soil permeability. This work can be considered a glimpse into the possible alterations of wine composition in currently moderate-climate wine-growing areas.
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- Phenolic compounds