Sensing enzymatic sialylation provides new tools for the evaluation of pathological events and pathogen invasion. Enzymatic sialylation is usually monitored via fluorescence or metabolic labeling, which requires relatively large amounts of the glycan substrate with limited availability. Using a label-free biosensor requires smaller quantities of substrates because the interactions induce measurable changes to an interface, which can be translated into a signal. The downside of label-free biosensors is that they are very sensitive to changes at the interface, and the properties of the surface layer can play a major role. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used here to follow the enzymatic sialylation of a biantennary N-glycan acceptor in mixed monolayers. The surfaces contained either neutral, positively or negatively charged, or zwitterionic functional groups. The systems were characterized by contact potential difference, ellipsometry, and contact angle analyses. We found that the characteristics of the mixed monolayer have a profound effect on the biosensing of the enzymatic sialylation. Positively charged layers were found to adsorb the enzyme under the reaction conditions. Negatively charged and zwitterionic surfaces were nonresponsive to enzymatic sialylation. Only the neutral mixed monolayers provided signals that were related directly to enzymatic sialylation. This work demonstrates the importance of appropriate interface properties for monitoring enzymatic sialylation processes.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
I.A. is supported by the Hebrew University Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology PhD Scholarship; S.Y. is the Binjamin H. Birstein Chair in Chemistry. M.H. and S.Y. are supported by COST Action 18103 INNOGLY.
© 2022 American Chemical Society.