The effect of aerosols on cloud properties, such as its droplet sizes and its glaciation temperatures, depends on their compositions and concentrations. In order to examine these effects,we collected rain samples in northern Israel during five winters (2008-2011 and 2013) and determined their chemical composition, which was later used to identify the aerosols’ sources. By combining the chemical data with satellite-retrieved cloud properties, we linked the aerosol types, sources, and concentrations with the cloud glaciation temperatures (Tg). The presence of dust increased Tg from -26°C to -12°C already at relatively low dust concentrations. This result is in agreement with the conventional wisdom that desert dust serves as good ice nuclei (INs). With higher dust concentrations, Tg saturated at -12°C, even though cloud droplet sizes decreased as a result of the cloud condensation nucleating (CCN) activity of the dust. Marine air masses also encouraged freezing, but in this case, freezing was enhanced by the larger cloud droplet sizes in the air masses (caused by low CCN concentrations) and not by IN concentrations or by aerosol type. An increased fraction of anthropogenic aerosols in marine air masses caused a decrease in Tg, indicating that these aerosols served as poor IN. Anthropogenic aerosols reduced cloud droplet sizes, which further decreased Tg. Our results could be useful in climate models for aerosol-cloud interactions, aswe investigated the effects of aerosols of different sources on cloud properties. Such parameterization can simplify these models substantially.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank Tom Goren, Michal Ben Israel, and Daniel Palchan for their useful conversations and insights. Special thanks go to all of those who got wet while sampling the rain (Kobi Schpund, Tony Yovel, Tal Halevi, Anton Lokshin, Reli Sabag, and many more). Funding for the research was provided by the Water Authority of Israel. Back trajec tories of air masses calculated using the HYSPLIT model (http://ready.arl.noaa. gov/hypub-bin/trajtype.pl?runty-pe=archive). Satellite images were taken from the Geostationary Satellite Meteosat-09 (https://eoportal.eumetsat. int/userMgmt/protected/dataCentre. faces).
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