Effects of feedback on galaxies in the VELA simulations: elongation, clumps, and compaction

Daniel Ceverino*, Nir Mandelker, Gregory F. Snyder, Sharon Lapiner, Avishai Dekel, Joel Primack, Omri Ginzburg, Sean Larkin

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


The evolution of star-forming galaxies at high redshifts is very sensitive to the strength and nature of stellar feedback. Using two sets of cosmological, zoom-in simulations from the VELA suite, we compare the effects of two different models of feedback: with and without kinetic feedback from the expansion of supernovae shells and stellar winds. At a fixed halo mass and redshift, the stellar mass is reduced by a factor of ∼1-3 in the models with stronger feedback, so the stellar mass-halo mass relation is in better agreement with abundance matching results. On the other hand, the three-dimensional shape of low-mass galaxies is elongated along a major axis in both models. At a fixed stellar mass, M < 1010 M, galaxies are more elongated in the strong-feedback case. More massive, star-forming discs with high surface densities form giant clumps. However, the population of round, compact, old (agec > 300 Myr), quenched, stellar (or gas-poor) clumps is absent in the model with strong feedback. On the other hand, giant star-forming clumps with intermediate ages (agec = 100-300 Myr) can survive for several disc dynamical times, independently of feedback strength. The evolution through compaction followed by quenching in the plane of central surface density and specific star formation rate is similar under the two feedback models.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)3912-3925
Number of pages14
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society.


  • galaxies: evolution
  • galaxies: formation
  • galaxies: high-redshift


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