Efficient inference of parent-of-origin effect using case-control mother–child genotype data

Yuang Tian, Hong Zhang*, Alexandre Bureau, Hagit Hochner, Jinbo Chen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Parent-of-origin effect plays an important role in mammal development and disorder. Case-control mother–child pair genotype data can be used to detect parent-of-origin effect and is often convenient to collect in practice. Most existing methods for assessing parent-of-origin effect do not incorporate any covariates, which may be required to control for confounding factors. We propose to model the parent-of-origin effect through a logistic regression model, with predictors including maternal and child genotypes, parental origins, and covariates. The parental origins may not be fully inferred from genotypes of a target genetic marker, so we propose to use genotypes of markers tightly linked to the target marker to increase inference efficiency. A robust statistical inference procedure is developed based on a modified profile log-likelihood in a retrospective way. A computationally feasible expectation–maximization algorithm is devised to estimate all unknown parameters involved in the modified profile log-likelihood. This algorithm differs from the conventional expectation–maximization algorithm in the sense that it is based on a modified instead of the original profile log-likelihood function. The convergence of the algorithm is established under some mild regularity conditions. This expectation–maximization algorithm also allows convenient handling of missing child genotypes. Large sample properties, including weak consistency, asymptotic normality, and asymptotic efficiency, are established for the proposed estimator under some mild regularity conditions. Finite sample properties are evaluated through extensive simulation studies and the application to a real dataset.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number106190
JournalJournal of Statistical Planning and Inference
StatePublished - Dec 2024

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© 2024 Elsevier B.V.


  • Modified profile log-likelihood
  • Mother–child pair
  • Parent-of-origin effect


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