Biomarkers, especially biochemical markers, are important in osteoarthritis (OA) research, clinical trials, and drug development and have potential for more extensive use in therapeutic monitoring. However, they have not yet had any significant impact on disease diagnosis and follow-up in a clinical context. Nevertheless, the development of immunoassays for the detection and measurement of biochemical markers in OA research and therapy is an active area of research and development. The evaluation of biochemical markers representing low-grade inflammation or extracellular matrix turnover may permit OA prognosis and expedite the development of personalized treatment tailored to fit particular disease severities. However, currently detection methods have failed to overcome specific hurdles such as low biochemical marker concentrations, patient-specific variation, and limited utility of single biochemical markers for definitive characterization of disease status. These challenges require new and innovative approaches for development of detection and quantification systems that incorporate clinically relevant biochemical marker panels. Emerging platforms and technologies that are already on the way to implementation in routine diagnostics and monitoring of other diseases could potentially serve as good technological and strategic examples for better assessment of OA. State-of-the-art technologies such as advanced multiplex assays, enhanced immunoassays, and biosensors ensure simultaneous screening of a range of biochemical marker targets, the expansion of detection limits, low costs, and rapid analysis. This paper explores the implementation of such technologies in OA research and therapy. Application of novel immunoassay-based technologies may shed light on poorly understood mechanisms in disease pathogenesis and lead to the development of clinically relevant biochemical marker panels. More sensitive and specific biochemical marker immunodetection will complement imaging biomarkers and ensure evidence-based comparisons of intervention efficacy. We discuss the challenges hindering the development, testing, and implementation of new OA biochemical marker assays utilizing emerging multiplexing technologies and biosensors.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We wish to acknowledge financial support from the European Structural and Social Funds through the Research Council of Lithuania (Lietuvos Mokslo Taryba) according to the Programme Attracting Foreign Researchers for Research Implementation, Grant No. 01.2.2-LMT-K-718-02-0022. The research underpinning some of the work reviewed has received funding from a number of sources including The European Commission Framework 7 program (EU FP7; HEALTH.2012.2.4.5-2, project number 305815; Novel
We would like to thank our collaborators and members of our research teams for useful discussions about the emerging applications of biochemical marker platform and nanotechnologies in OA research and therapy. Funding. We wish to acknowledge financial support from the European Structural and Social Funds through the Research Council of Lithuania (Lietuvos Mokslo Taryba) according to the Programme Attracting Foreign Researchers for Research Implementation, Grant No. 01.2.2-LMT-K-718-02-0022. The research underpinning some of the work reviewed has received funding from a number of sources including The European Commission Framework 7 program (EU FP7; HEALTH.2012.2.4.5-2, project number 305815; Novel Diagnostics and Biomarkers for Early Identification of Chronic Inflammatory Joint Diseases); the Innovative Medicines Initiative Joint Undertaking under grant agreement no. 115770, resources of which are composed of financial contribution from the European Union's Seventh Framework program (FP7/2007-2013), EFPIA companies' in-kind contribution and the H2020 projects RESTORE (project number 814558; topic NMBP-22-2018 RIA), and MIRACLE (project number 780598; topic ICT-30-2017). Details of the D-BOARD FP7 Consortium are available at: http://www.d-board.eu. Details of the H2020-RESTORE Consortium are available at restoreproject.eu. Details on the H2020-MIRACLE Consortium are available at miracleproject.eu. AM was the coordinator of the D-BOARD Consortium funded by European Commission Framework 7 program (EU FP7; HEALTH.2012.2.4.5?2, project number 305815, Novel Diagnostics and Biomarkers for Early Identification of Chronic Inflammatory Joint Diseases). AM is a member of the Applied Public-Private Research enabling OsteoArthritis Clinical Headway (APPROACH) consortium, a 5-year project funded by the European Commission's Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI). Details of the APPROACH IMI Consortium are available at: https://www.approachproject.eu. AM has also received financial support from the European Commission through a Marie Sk?odowska-Curie Intra-European Fellowship for career development awarded to Dr. Csaba Matta (project number: 625746; acronym: CHONDRION; FP7-PEOPLE-2013-IEF). MD-G was supported by Rosetrees Trust (PGS19-2/10029) and the Israeli Science foundation (370/17).
© Copyright © 2020 Bernotiene, Bagdonas, Kirdaite, Bernotas, Kalvaityte, Uzieliene, Thudium, Hannula, Lorite, Dvir-Ginzberg, Guermazi and Mobasheri.
- biochemical marker
- magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
- multiplexing technologies
- osteoarthritis (OA)