It is well-established today that the psychological barrier is one of the most prominent factors operating against efforts to promote peace. However, most studies along these lines have concentrated on the cognitive barriers and neglected the emotional ones. Hence, the main goal of this study is to create a deeper understanding of how emotions (e.g., fear, anger, and hatred) directed toward an adversary serve as a barrier to potential public support for peaceful resolution of a conflict. To that end, an experimental survey was conducted among a representative nationwide sample of Jewish Israelis (N = 501) in the week prior to the Annapolis Peace Summit. Negative emotions were stimulated, and different variables reflecting support for peace or violence were measured. Results obtained via paths analysis using structural equation modeling have drawn a comprehensive map of the distinct impact of each emotion on specific aspects of public opinion toward the peace process.