Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress develops when the ER is overloaded with too many proteins to fold. This elicits a signaling pathway called the unfolded protein response. The unfolded protein response is physiologically required for the terminal development of B cells into antibody-secreting plasma cells. Ring Box Protein 1 (RBX1) is a 14-kDa protein necessary for ubiquitin ligation activity of the multimeric cullin ring ubiquitin ligases (CRLs). As RBX1 is shared by a large number of CRLs, alterations in its activity may lead to global changes in protein stability. We discovered that RBX1 is cleaved in the course of LPS-induced plasma cell differentiation and in multiple myeloma cell lines upon induction of pharmacological ER stress. The cleavage is executed by several caspase proteases that cleave RBX1 eight amino acids from the N terminus. To address the possible implication of RBX1 cleavage for CRL activity, we replaced the endogenous RBX1 homolog of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Roc1, with the wild type or the N-terminal Δ8 mutant human RBX1. We show that yeast expressing the cleaved RBX1are hypersensitive to ER stress and are impaired in CRL-mediated ubiquitination and degradation. We propose a model by which N-terminal cleavage ofRBX1impairs its activity and promotes susceptibility to ER stress induction.