Endurance of extremely prolonged nutrient prevention across kingdoms of life

Ronen Hazan, Miriam Schoemann, Michael Klutstein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Numerous observations demonstrate that microorganisms can survive very long periods of nutrient deprivation and starvation. Moreover, it is evident that prolonged periods of starvation are a feature of many habitats, and many cells in all kingdoms of life are found in prolonged starvation conditions. Bacteria exhibit a range of responses to long-term starvation. These include genetic adaptations such as the long-term stationary phase and the growth advantage in stationary phase phenotypes characterized by mutations in stress-signaling genes and elevated mutation rates. Here, we suggest using the term "endurance of prolonged nutrient prevention" (EPNP phase), to describe this phase, which was also recently described in eukaryotes. Here, we review this literature and describe the current knowledge about the adaptations to very long-term starvation conditions in bacteria and eukaryotes, its conceptual and structural conservation across all kingdoms of life, and point out possible directions that merit further research.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)102745
Number of pages1
Issue number7
StatePublished - 23 Jul 2021


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