Enterovirus characterized from cerebrospinal fluid in a cohort from the Eastern United States

Amary Fall, Michael Forman, C. Paul Morris, Victoria Gniazdowski, Chun Huai Luo, Ann Hanlon, Heather Miller, Yehudit Bergman, Heba H. Mostafa*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Enteroviruses (EVs) are predominant causes of a spectrum of neurological diseases. To better understand the origins of the outbreaks of disease associated with EV, it is essential to develop an efficient surveillance system that identifies the circulating EVs and correlate their genomic evolution with the disease presentations. Methods: The clinical presentations of patients with positive EV from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) between 2014 and 2022, diagnosed at the Johns Hopkins Medical Microbiology Laboratory, were compared from year to year. EV typing and whole genome sequencing were performed and correlated to the spectrum of disease. Results: A total of 95 CSF specimens were positive for EV between 2014 and 2022. The percentage positivity ranged from the lowest of 1.1% in 2020 to the highest of 3.2% in 2015. The median ages declined from 22 years in 2014 to less than one year starting in 2016 to 34 in 2022. Typing using VP1 sequencing revealed that E30 and E6 were associated with meningitis in adults but coxsackieviruses (CVs-B3 and B5) were detected from pediatric patients with fever. Whole genome sequencing revealed multiple recombination events. In 2020, a recombinant CV-A9 was detected in a CSF sample associated with unusual presentation of sepsis, profound acute bilateral sensory neural hearing loss, and myofasciitis. Conclusions: EV genomic surveillance is needed for a better understanding of the genetic determinants of neurovirulence. Whole genome sequencing can reveal recombination events missed by traditional molecular surveillance methods.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number105401
JournalJournal of Clinical Virology
StatePublished - Apr 2023
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Author(s)


  • CSF
  • Coxsackievirus
  • Echovirus
  • Enterovirus


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