Entrails and Divine Wrath: Two Quranic Words in Light of Parallel Aramaic Texts

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This study identifies pre-Islamic parallels to a few Quranic verses which concern two words: (a) ḥawāyā (Q 6:146) and (b) rijz/rujz (especially in its occurrences regarding Sodom and Egypt). In both cases hitherto unnoticed possible Biblical precedents or triggers for the Quranic diction are identified. The two cases studied here shed light on the form, meaning and origin of these two Quranic words. In the first case I examine a parallel in the Peshitta to Leviticus which lends support to an emendation offered by Christoph Luxenberg, but does not settle the matter. In the second case the parallels reinforce the argument for an Aramaic or Syriac provenance.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)455-470
Number of pages16
Issue number3-4
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
1 This research was supported by the Israel Science Foundation (grant no. 863/17). I thank Meir Bar-Asher, Simon Hopkins, Judith Loebenstein Witztum, and Manolis Papoutsakis for their comments on earlier drafts.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Peeters Publishers. All rights reserved.


  • Luxenberg, Christoph
  • Qurʼan--Criticism, interpretation
  • God -- Wrath
  • Aramaic language
  • Arabic language


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