Entrepreneurial exit response to dissatisfaction with public services

Anat Gofen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Scopus citations


Following Hirschman's seminal Exit, Voice and Loyalty, an exit response to dissatisfaction with public services is often portrayed as a replacement of one service provider with another, depending on the availability of alternatives. This article enriches Hirschman's typology by conceptualising an 'entrepreneurial exit' response referring to citizens who exit proactively by creating a viable alternative themselves. The practical aspects of entrepreneurial exit are analysed based on five manifestations: planned homebirth, homeschooling, urban self-defence groups, children with disabilities, and claim clubs in the American West. Whereas citizens' roles within the public service sphere are referred to as 'participators', 'customers', and 'co-producers', entrepreneurial exit indicates the entrepreneurial role citizens may play. Similar to the additional forms of exit, entrepreneurial exit becomes meaningful if the newly introduced form of service gains social acceptance, especially when it reflects policy non-compliance within which laymen are transformed into providers of professional services.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)1088-1106
Number of pages19
JournalPublic Administration
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2012


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