Environmental-Friendly Polymer for Efficient and Stable Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells with Mitigating Lead Leakage

Qi Cao, Tong Wang, Jiabao Yang, Yixin Zhang, Yuke Li, Xingyu Pu, Junsong Zhao, Hui Chen, Xiaoqiang Li, Ilhom Tojiboyev, Jiangzhao Chen*, Lioz Etgar, Xuanhua Li*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

60 Scopus citations


Although perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are on the road to industrialization, the operational stability under high efficiency still needs to be improved, and the water solubility of lead ions (Pb2+) will cause environmental pollution problems. Herein, it is successfully implanted an environment-friendly (biodegradability) poly(butylene adipate-coterephthalate) polymer (PBAT) into the perovskite film, which can passivate the uncoordinated Pb2+ and neutral iodine defects of the perovskite material because of the adequate carbonyl groups and benzene rings in PBAT polymer, thereby regulating the crystallization of perovskite film with lower trap density, inhibiting the nonradiative recombination and improving charge carrier transport. As a result, the polymer-incorporated inverted PSCs achieve optimal conversion efficiencies of 22.07% (0.1 cm2) and 20.31% (1 cm2). Meanwhile, the incorporated device, after being encapsulated, exhibits a prominent improvement in operational stability of high-efficiency device under maximum power point tracking and continuous one sunlight illumination, maintaining the initial efficiency of 80% for 3249 h. More importantly, the polymer network can protect Pb2+ from being dissolved by water and prevent nearly 98% of Pb2+ from leaking by directly immersing the polymer-coated perovskite film in water. Environmental-friendly molecules provide new hope for solving lead poisoning and improving device operational stability under high efficiency.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number2201036
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Issue number32
Early online date14 Apr 2022
StateE-pub ahead of print - 14 Apr 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (52172237, 52072228), the Shaanxi International Cooperation Project (2020KWZ‐018), the Shaanxi Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars (2022JC‐21), the Research Fund of the State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing (NPU), China (Grant No. 2021‐QZ‐02), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (3102019JC005). The authors thank the members from the Analytical & Testing Center of Northwestern Polytechnical University for the help of XRD, XPS, and SEM characterization.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Wiley-VCH GmbH.


  • environmental-friendly polymers
  • high efficiency
  • inverted perovskite solar cells lead leakage
  • operational stability


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