Enzymes and Other Proteins Entrapped in Sol-Gel Materials

David Avnir*, Sergei Braun, Ovadia Lev, Michael Ottolenghi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

841 Scopus citations


We review the growing field of entrapment of purified enzymes, whole cells, antibodies, and other proteins in sol-gel matrices prepared from metal alkoxides. Basic aspects of the nature of the trapping and its effects on the dopant activity are discussed, and various applicative uses of these novel bioactive materials are presented, including sensors, biosensors, electrodes, immunoadsorbents, optical components, environment-related materials, and biotechnology-related materials. Outlook of potential applications and future directions of this field are provided throughout the review.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)1605-1614
Number of pages10
JournalChemistry of Materials
Issue number10
StatePublished - 1 Oct 1994


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