Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation of prostate metastatic tumor cells results in transient phosphorylation and cellular localization of non-muscle myosin heavy chain II-B (NMHC II-B) with kinetics similar to those seen in chemotaxis. We demonstrate that expression of 18- and 72-kDa fragments derived from the NMHC II-B C terminus that contain EGF-dependent NMHC II-B phosphorylation sites serve as dominant-negative mutations for EGF-dependent NMHC II-B phosphorylation and localization. Both fragments inhibited the EGF-dependent phosphorylation by competing with NMHC II-B on the myosin heavy chain kinase. However, only expression of the 72-kDa fragment resulted in cells with abnormalities in cell shape, focal adhesions, and chemotaxis. We found that the 72-kDa (but not 18-kDa) fragment is capable of self-assembly. To our knowledge, these results provide the first strong evidence that EGF-dependent NMHC II-B phosphorylation is required for the cellular localization of NMHC II-B and that NMHC II-B is required for normal cell attachment and for chemotactic response.