Epoxyeicosanoids promote organ and tissue regeneration

Dipak Panigrahy*, Brian T. Kalish, Sui Huang, Diane R. Bielenberg, Hau D. Le, Jun Yang, Matthew L. Edin, Craig R. Lee, Ofra Benny, Dayna K. Mudge, Catherine E. Butterfield, Akiko Mammoto, Tadanori Mammoto, Bora Inceoglu, Roger L. Jenkins, Mary A. Simpson, Tomoshige Akino, Fred B. Lih, Kenneth B. Tomer, Donald E. IngberBruce D. Hammock, John R. Falck, Vijaya L. Manthati, Arja Kaipainen, Patricia A. D'Amore, Mark Puder, Darryl C. Zeldin, Mark W. Kieran

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

118 Scopus citations


Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), lipid mediators produced by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases, regulate inflammation, angiogenesis, and vascular tone. Despite pleiotropic effects on cells, the role of these epoxyeicosanoids in normal organ and tissue regeneration remains unknown. EETs are produced predominantly in the endothelium. Normal organ and tissue regeneration require an active paracrine role of the microvascular endothelium, which in turn depends on angiogenic growth factors. Thus, we hypothesize that endothelial cells stimulate organ and tissue regeneration via production of bioactive EETs. To determine whether endothelial-derived EETs affect physiologic tissue growth in vivo, we used genetic and pharmacological tools to manipulate endogenous EET levels. We show that endothelial-derived EETs play a critical role in accelerating tissue growth in vivo, including liver regeneration, kidney compensatory growth, lung compensatory growth, wound healing, corneal neovascularization, and retinal vascularization. Administration of synthetic EETs recapitulated these results,whereas lowering EET levels, either genetically or pharmacologically, delayed tissue regeneration, demonstrating that pharmacological modulation of EETs can affect normal organ and tissue growth. We also show that soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors, which elevate endogenous EET levels, promote liver and lung regeneration. Thus, our observations indicate a central role for EETs in organ and tissue regeneration and their contribution to tissue homeostasis.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)13528-13533
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number33
StatePublished - 13 Aug 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Angiocrine
  • Autacoid
  • Organ regeneration
  • Small molecule mediator
  • VEGF


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