Geometrical frustration in thin sheets is ubiquitous across scales in biology and becomes increasingly relevant in technology. Previous research identified the origin of the frustration as the violation of Gauss's Theorema Egregium. Such "Gauss frustration"exhibits rich phenomenology; it may lead to mechanical instabilities, anomalous mechanics, and shape-morphing abilities that can be harnessed in engineering systems. Here we report a new type of geometrical frustration, one that is as general as Gauss frustration. We show that its origin is the violation of Mainardi-Codazzi-Peterson compatibility equations and that it appears in Euclidean sheets. Combining experiments, simulations, and theory, we study the specific case of a Euclidean ribbon with radial and geodesic curvatures. Experiments, conducted using different materials and techniques, reveal shape transitions, symmetry breaking, and spontaneous stress focusing. These observations are quantitatively rationalized using analytic solutions and geometrical arguments. We expect this frustration to play a significant role in natural and engineering systems, specifically in slender 3D printed sheets.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by the U.S.A.-Israel binational science foundation, Grant No. 2014310. I. L. is grateful to the Azrieli Foundation for the support via an Azrieli Fellowship. E. S. acknowledges support from the Lady Davis Fellowship Trust.
© 2021 authors.
- Soft Matter