Purpose: The leading cause of severe visual loss world-wide is age-related macular degeneration. Although anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor agents have significantly led to the initial pharmacologic reversal of vision loss in many cases of exudative macular degeneration, there still has been recurrence of choroidal neovascularization, and/or the onset of chorioretinal atrophy with fibrosis.Materials and Methods: In this review we discuss the status of anti- Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in age-related macular degeneration and describe different studies focused on new potential therapeutic targets beyond anti- Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor.Results: Further investigations have elicited that Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor is only one of many angiogenic, and pro-inflammatory factors that bring about the growth and leakage of active choroidal neovascularization. Various new multifaceted strategies, including inhibitors to down-stream targets of endothelial cell division, such as TNP-470, may lead to a more permanent inactivation of choroidal neovascularization.Conclusions: Based on the accumulated results in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, it is hoped that the appropriate combination of anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor agents with longer-acting and multidimensional pharmaceuticals, such as Methionine Aminopeptidase-2 inhibitors, will more effectively control choroidal neovascularization, prevent atrophy and fibrosis, and reduce the burden of frequent intraocular injections in age-related macular degeneration.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Ofra Benny acknowledges support of The Adolf and Klara Brettler Center for Research in Molecular Pharmacology and Therapeutics at The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.
© 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
- Macular degeneration