Examining enforcement coverage for speeding and red-light offenses across various populations and driver characteristics

Roni Factor*, Mali Sher

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Over the years empirical evidence has shown that traffic enforcement reduces traffic violations, crashes, and casualties. However, less attention has been paid to enforcement coverage across different populations and driver characteristics. The current study develops and explores a method for estimating police enforcement coverage, by comparing the share of drivers across several characteristics who received tickets from automatic speed and red-light cameras – as an objective estimate of offenses committed – to the share of drivers who received tickets through manual police enforcement. Using data from all speeding and red-light tickets issued to Israelis over a period of one and a half years, we found under-enforcement by police officers for female drivers, two-wheeled vehicle drivers (for speeding), and drivers with previous tickets. We found over-enforcement for younger drivers, truck drivers, and two-wheeled vehicle drivers (for red-light offenses). The findings suggest that the method developed in the research is able to identify groups of drivers who are over- or under-enforced. Police authorities can use this information to create evidence-based enforcement policies.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number107259
JournalAccident Analysis and Prevention
StatePublished - Nov 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier Ltd


  • Automatic enforcement cameras
  • Enforcement
  • Police
  • Red-light running
  • Speeding
  • Traffic violations


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