Expectations influence how emotions shape behavior

Maya Tamir*, Yochanan E. Bigman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations

Abstract

Emotions shape behavior, but there is some debate over the manner in which they do so. The authors propose that how emotions shape behavior depends, in part, on how people expect emotions to shape behavior. In Study 1, angry (vs. calm) participants made more money in a negotiation when they expected anger to be beneficial. In Study 2, angry (vs. calm) participants killed more enemies in a computer game when they expected anger (but not calmness) to promote performance. In Study 3, excited (vs. calm) participants were more creative when they expected excitement to promote performance, whereas calm (vs. excited) participants were more creative when they expected calmness to promote performance. These findings demonstrate that, at least sometimes, what emotions do depends on what we expect them to do.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)15-25
Number of pages11
JournalEmotion
Volume18
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 American Psychological Association.

Keywords

  • Behavior
  • Beliefs
  • Emotion
  • Expectations

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