The killing activity of NK cells is regulated by signals derived from inhibitory and activating NK cell receptors, including the CD300 family of proteins. CD300a was reported to be expressed on all NK cells and to deliver an inhibitory signal upon binding to a yet unknown ligand/s. The CD300a protein contains four ITIMs and is highly homologous to CD300c. Little is known about the function and distribution of these two receptors and the identity of their ligand/s. In this article, we show that CD300a is indeed an inhibitory receptor expressed by human NK cells, but surprisingly, we show that not all NK clones are inhibited in a CD300adependent manner. We demonstrate, using a panel of 13 new anti-CD300a and CD300c Abs that we generated, that CD300a and CD300c are indistinguishable on the surface of NK cells. Using mutational-analysis survey, we show that tyrosine 267 located in the third ITIM motif of the CD300a protein is important for the inhibitory function of CD300a.