We previously reported that short exposure of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruits to high temperature protects them from chilling injury. To study the involvement of heat-shock proteins (HSPs) in the acquisition of low-temperature tolerance, we cloned two heat-shock-induced genes that are also expressed at low temperatures. The cloned cDNAs belong to the small HSP group. Sequence analyses of the clones showed perfect homology to the tomato-ripening gene tom66 and to the tomato chloroplaslic HSP21 gene tom111. The expression of both genes was induced by high temperature in fruits, flowers, leaves, and stems, but not by low or ambient temperatures or by other stresses such as drought and anaerobic conditions. When the heated fruits were transferred to low temperature, tom66 and tom111 mRNA levels first decreased but were then reinduced. Induction was not observed in nonheated fruits at low temperature. Immunodetection of tom111-encoded protein indicated that this protein is present at low temperatures in the heated fruits. The results of this study show that the expression of tom66 and tom111 is correlated with protection against some, but not all, symptoms of chilling injury.