Expression Profiling of Four Mango FT/TFL1-Encoding Genes under Different Fruit Load Conditions, and Their Involvement in Flowering Regulation

Itamar Gafni, Avinash Chandra Rai, Eyal Halon, Tali Zviran, Isaac Sisai, Alon Samach, Vered Irihimovitch*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Plant flowering is antagonistically modulated by similar FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) proteins. In mango (Mangifera indica L.), flowering is induced by cold temperatures, unless the tree is juvenile or the adult tree had a high fruit load (HFL) in the summer. Here, we studied the effects of juvenility and fruit load on the expression of four MiFT/TFL1 genes cloned from the mango ‘Shelly’ cultivar. Ectopic expression of MiFT1 in Arabidopsis resulted in early flowering, whereas over-expression of MiFT2 and the two cloned MiTFL1 genes repressed flowering. Moreover, juvenility was positively correlated with higher transcript levels of MiFT2 and both MiTFL1s. In trees with a low fruit load, leaf MiFT1 expression increased in winter, whereas HFL delayed its upregulation. MiFT2 expression was upregulated in both leaves and buds under both fruit load conditions. Downregulation of both MITFL1s in buds was associated with a decrease in regional temperatures under both conditions; nevertheless, HFL delayed the decrease in their accumulation. Our results suggest that cold temperature has opposite effects on the expression of MiFT1 and the MiTFL1s, thereby inducing flowering, whereas HFL represses flowering by both suppressing MiFT1 upregulation and delaying MiTFL1s downregulation. The apparent flowering-inhibitory functions of MiFT2 are discussed.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number2409
Issue number18
StatePublished - Sep 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by grant number 20-01-0081 from the Chief Scientist of the Israeli Ministry of Agriculture to V.I. and A.C.R. was supported in part by an Agricultural Research Organization Postdoctoral Fellowship for Indian and Chinese candidates.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.


  • alternate bearing
  • flowering
  • fruit load
  • mango


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