Fabrication Approaches of Soft Electronics

Joel Ming Rui Tan, Yousef Farraj, Alexander Kamyshny, Shlomo Magdassi*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


The use of conductive materials to be printed/embedded onto/within a polymeric matrix has gained increasing attention in the fabrication of next-generation soft electronics. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the materials and approaches for the fabrication of 2D and 3D conductive structures while focusing on the importance of the compatibility between the particles’ shape, the polymeric matrix type, and the deposition method, along with the target application. The review presents a summary of the main conductive materials and the type of polymeric materials which were utilized for fabricating soft electronic devices that are bendable/twistable and stretchable. It is divided into two sections: Introduction section, which presents briefly conductive materials, polymeric matrix, and fabrication methods, and Fabrication section, presenting the main 6 approaches of fabrication. Each of the fabrication subsections presents the main recent reports in a detailed table. The review is concluded with an Outlook section, describing the current challenges in this field. Despite the progress in the fabrication of 2D bendable/twistable electronic devices toward industrial integration, there is still a need for tailoring and improving the durability and robustness of 3D stretchable electronic devices.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)1376-1393
Number of pages18
JournalACS Applied Electronic Materials
Issue number3
StatePublished - 28 Mar 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society.


  • 2D printed sensors
  • 3D printed sensors
  • printed electronics
  • soft electronics
  • soft sensors


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