Semitransparency is an attractive and important property in solar cells since it opens new possibilities in a variety of applications such as tandem cell configuration and building-integrated photovoltaics. Metal halide perovskite has the optimal properties to function as the light harvester in solar cells and can be made as a thin film, while its chemical composition can change its band gap. However, achieving high transparency usually compromises the solar cell's efficiency. Here we report on a unique approach to fabricating semitransparent perovskite solar cells that does not rely on their composition or their thickness. The approach is based on a scalable process, inkjet printing of arrays of transparent pillars, which are composed of inert photopolymerizable liquid compositions and are partly covered by the perovskite. This material can be printed at specific locations and array densities, thus providing a digital control of both the transparency and efficiency of the solar cells. The new semitransparent device structure shows 11.2% efficiency with 24% average transparency without a top metal contact. Further development including deposition of a transparent contact enabled the fabrication of fully semitransparent devices with an efficiency of 10.6% and average transparency of 19%.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors thank the Israel Ministry of Energy for the financial support and the National Research Foundation, Prime Minister’s Office, Singapore, through the Singapore-HUJ Alliance for Research and Enterprise (SHARE) and Nanomaterials for Energy and Water Management (NEW) CREATE programme.
- high efficiency
- inkjet printing
- perovskite solar cells
- polymer-ink pillars