Failure of beta-cell adaptation in type 2 diabetes: Lessons from animal models

Nurit Kaiser*, Gil Leibowitz

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


The pancreatic beta-cell adapts to increased nutrient availability and insulin resistance by increasing its function and mass. These processes are orchestrated by signals derived from nutrient metabolism, hormones and cytokines. Their end-result is the regulation of insulin secretion and biosynthesis, and beta-cell proliferation and apoptosis. This review focuses on the mechanisms involved in beta-cell nutrient sensing and adaptation and the potential causes of beta-cell dysfunction and death in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate adequate beta-cell adaptation and the natural history of beta-cell failure is of utmost importance for the development of novel disease modifying treatments.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)1099-1115
Number of pages17
JournalFrontiers in Bioscience - Landmark
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Beta-cell adaptation
  • Beta-cell failure
  • Beta-cell mass
  • Beta-cells
  • Endoplasmic reticulum stress
  • Glucolipotoxicity
  • Glucotoxicity
  • Inflammatory stress
  • Insulin secretion
  • Oxidative stress
  • Proinsulin biosynthesis
  • Review
  • Type 2 diabetes


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