Fair equivalence relations

Orna Kupferman*, Nir Piterman, Moshe Y. Vardi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Equivalence between designs is a fundamental notion in verification. The linear and branching approaches to verification induce different notions of equivalence. When the designs are modeled by fair state-transition systems, equivalence in the linear paradigm corresponds to fair trace equivalence, and in the branching paradigm corresponds to fair bisimulation. In this work we study the expressive power of various types of fairness conditions. For the linear paradigm, it is known that the Büchi condition is sufficiently strong (that is, a fair system that uses Rabin or Streett fairness can be translated to an equivalent Büchi system). We show that in the branching paradigm the expressiveness hierarchy depends on the types of fair bisimulation one chooses to use. We consider three types of fair bisimulation studied in the literature: ∃-bisimulation, game-bisimulation, and ∀-bisimulation. We show that while game-bisimulation and ∀-bisimulation have the same expressiveness hierarchy as tree automata, ∃-bisimulation induces a different hierarchy. This hierarchy lies between the hierarchies of word and tree automata, and it collapses at Rabin conditions of index one, and Streett conditions of index two.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)702-732
Number of pages31
JournalLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
StatePublished - 2004


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