Ultrathin lensless fibre endoscopes offer minimally invasive investigation, but they mostly operate as a rigid type due to the need for prior calibration of a fibre probe. Furthermore, most implementations work in fluorescence mode rather than label-free imaging mode, making them unsuitable for general medical diagnosis. Herein, we report a fully flexible ultrathin fibre endoscope taking 3D holographic images of unstained tissues with 0.85-μm spatial resolution. Using a bare fibre bundle as thin as 200-μm diameter, we design a lensless Fourier holographic imaging configuration to selectively detect weak reflections from biological tissues, a critical step for label-free endoscopic reflectance imaging. A unique algorithm is developed for calibration-free holographic image reconstruction, allowing us to image through a narrow and curved passage regardless of fibre bending. We demonstrate endoscopic reflectance imaging of unstained rat intestine tissues that are completely invisible to conventional endoscopes. The proposed endoscope will expedite a more accurate and earlier diagnosis than before with minimal complications.
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