Frozen patterns of impacted droplets: From conical tips to toroidal shapes

Man Hu, Feng Wang, Qian Tao, Li Chen, Shmuel M. Rubinstein, Daosheng Deng*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


We report frozen ice patterns for the water droplets impacting on a cold substrate through high-speed images. These patterns can be manipulated by several physical parameters (the droplet size, falling height, and substrate temperature), and the scaling analysis has a remarkable agreement with the phase diagram. The observed double-concentric toroidal shape is attributed to the correlation between the impacting dynamics and freezing process, as confirmed by the spatiotemporal evolution of the droplet temperature, the identified timescale associated with the morphology and solidification (tinn≃τsol), and the ice front-advection model.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number081601
JournalPhysical Review Fluids
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2020
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

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© 2020 American Physical Society


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