The chemotactic potencies of ELR+-CXC chemokines during acute inflammation are regulated by their binding affinities and by their ability to activate, desensitize, and internalize their specific receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2. To gain insight into the fine mechanisms that control acute inflammatory processes, we have focused in this study on the highly potent ELR+-CXC chemokine Granulocyte Chemotactic Protein 2 (GCP-2), and on its ability to control the cell surface expression of CXCR1 and CXCR2. Although GCP-2 has been considered an effective ligand for both CXCR1 and CXCR2, our findings demonstrated that it was a potent inducer of CXCR2 internalization only. A functional hierarchy was shown to exist between GCP-2 and 2 other ELR+-CXC chemokines, IL-8 and NAP-2, in their abilities to induce CXCR1 and CXCR2 internalization, according to the following: IL-8 > GCP-2 > NAP-2. By the use of pertussis toxin (PTx), it was demonstrated that the actual events of G(αi)-coupling to CXCR2 do not have a major role in the regulation of its internalization. Rather, CXCR2 internalization was shown to be negatively controlled by induction of signaling events, as indicated by the promotion of CXCR2 internalization following exposure to wortmannin, a potent inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3 kinases and PI4 kinases. Furthermore, our results suggest that rab11+-endosomes participate in the trafficking of CXCR2 through the endocytic pathway, to eventually allow its recycling back to the plasma membrane. To conclude, our findings shed light on the interrelationships between GCP-2 and other ELR+-CXC chemokines, and determine the mechanisms involved in the regulation of GCP-2-induced internalization and recycling of CXCR2. (C) 2000 by The American Society of Hematology.
|Original language||American English|
|Number of pages||9|
|State||Published - 1 Mar 2000|