TY - GEN

T1 - Generalized belief propagation

AU - Yedidia, Jonathan S.

AU - Freeman, William T.

AU - Weiss, Yair

PY - 2001

Y1 - 2001

N2 - Belief propagation (BP) was only supposed to work for tree-like networks but works surprisingly well in many applications involving networks with loops, including turbo codes. However, there has been little understanding of the algorithm or the nature of the solutions it finds for general graphs. We show that BP can only converge to a stationary point of an approximate free energy, known as the Bethe free energy in statistical physics. This result characterizes BP fixed-points and makes connections with variational approaches to approximate inference. More importantly, our analysis lets us build on the progress made in statistical physics since Bethe's approximation was introduced in 1935. Kikuchi and others have shown how to construct more accurate free energy approximations, of which Bethe's approximation is the simplest. Exploiting the insights from our analysis, we derive generalized belief propagation (GBP) versions of these Kikuchi approximations. These new message passing algorithms can be significantly more accurate than ordinary BP, at an adjustable increase in complexity. We illustrate such a new GBP algorithm on a grid Markov network and show that it gives much more accurate marginal probabilities than those found using ordinary BP.

AB - Belief propagation (BP) was only supposed to work for tree-like networks but works surprisingly well in many applications involving networks with loops, including turbo codes. However, there has been little understanding of the algorithm or the nature of the solutions it finds for general graphs. We show that BP can only converge to a stationary point of an approximate free energy, known as the Bethe free energy in statistical physics. This result characterizes BP fixed-points and makes connections with variational approaches to approximate inference. More importantly, our analysis lets us build on the progress made in statistical physics since Bethe's approximation was introduced in 1935. Kikuchi and others have shown how to construct more accurate free energy approximations, of which Bethe's approximation is the simplest. Exploiting the insights from our analysis, we derive generalized belief propagation (GBP) versions of these Kikuchi approximations. These new message passing algorithms can be significantly more accurate than ordinary BP, at an adjustable increase in complexity. We illustrate such a new GBP algorithm on a grid Markov network and show that it gives much more accurate marginal probabilities than those found using ordinary BP.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84898975095&partnerID=8YFLogxK

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AN - SCOPUS:84898975095

SN - 0262122413

SN - 9780262122412

T3 - Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems

BT - Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 13 - Proceedings of the 2000 Conference, NIPS 2000

PB - Neural information processing systems foundation

T2 - 14th Annual Neural Information Processing Systems Conference, NIPS 2000

Y2 - 27 November 2000 through 2 December 2000

ER -