Genome recoding strategies to improve cellular properties: mechanisms and advances

Tanya Singh, Sudesh Kumar Yadav, Alexander Vainstein, Vinay Kumar*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The genetic code, once believed to be universal and immutable, is now known to contain many variations and is not quite universal. The basis for genome recoding strategy is genetic code variation that can be harnessed to improve cellular properties. Thus, genome recoding is a promising strategy for the enhancement of genome flexibility, allowing for novel functions that are not commonly documented in the organism in its natural environment. Here, the basic concept of genetic code and associated mechanisms for the generation of genetic codon variants, including biased codon usage, codon reassignment, and ambiguous decoding, are extensively discussed. Knowledge of the concept of natural genetic code expansion is also detailed. The generation of recoded organisms and associated mechanisms with basic targeting components, including aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase–tRNA pairs, elongation factor EF-Tu and ribosomes, are highlighted for a comprehensive understanding of this concept. The research associated with the generation of diverse recoded organisms is also discussed. The success of genome recoding in diverse multicellular organisms offers a platform for expanding protein chemistry at the biochemical level with non-canonical amino acids, genetically isolating the synthetic organisms from the natural ones, and fighting viruses, including SARS-CoV2, through the creation of attenuated viruses. In conclusion, genome recoding can offer diverse applications for improving cellular properties in the genome-recoded organisms.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)79-95
Number of pages17
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020, Agricultural Information Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.


  • Attenuated virus
  • Codon usage
  • Genetic code
  • Protein engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Genome recoding strategies to improve cellular properties: mechanisms and advances'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this