Tourette's syndrome (TS) is a developmental disorder that has one of the highest familial recurrence rates among neuropsychiatric diseases with complex inheritance. However, the identification of definitive TS susceptibility genes remains elusive. Here, we report the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of TS in 1285 cases and 4964 ancestry-matched controls of European ancestry, including two European-derived population isolates, Ashkenazi Jews from North America and Israel and French Canadians from Quebec, Canada. In a primary meta-analysis of GWAS data from these European ancestry samples, no markers achieved a genome-wide threshold of significance (P<5 × 10 -8); the top signal was found in rs7868992 on chromosome 9q32 within COL27A1 (P=1.85 × 10 -6). A secondary analysis including an additional 211 cases and 285 controls from two closely related Latin American population isolates from the Central Valley of Costa Rica and Antioquia, Colombia also identified rs7868992 as the top signal (P=3.6 × 10 -7 for the combined sample of 1496 cases and 5249 controls following imputation with 1000 Genomes data). This study lays the groundwork for the eventual identification of common TS susceptibility variants in larger cohorts and helps to provide a more complete understanding of the full genetic architecture of this disorder.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We are grateful to all the patients with Tourette’s syndrome who generously agreed to participate in this study. Furthermore, the members of the Tourette Syndrome Association International Consortium for Genetics are deeply indebted to the Tourette Syndrome Association for their guidance and support. We also thank Libby Bernier and Janelle Alabiso for their assistance in manuscript preparation and Stephan Ripke for help with meta-analysis figures. This work was supported by a grant from the Judah Foundation, NIH Grants NS40024 to DLP and the Tourette Syndrome Association International Consortium for Genetics, NIH Grant NS16648 and a grant from the Tourette Syndrome Association to DLP, NIH Grant NS037484 to NBF, NIH Grant NS043538 to AR-L, American Recovery and Re-investment Act (ARRA) awards NS40024-07S1 and NS16648-29S1 to DLP, NIH Grant MH079489, and an American Academy of Neurology Foundation Grant and NIH Grant MH085057 to JMS. The Broad Institute Center for Genotyping and Analysis was supported by Grant U54 RR020278 from the National Center for Research Resources. Support was also provided by the New Jersey Center for Tourette Syndrome & Associated Disorders (through New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services: 08-1827-FS-N-0) to GAH and JAT and P01MH049351, R01MH061940, K05MH076273 and T32MH018268 to JFL. Funding support for generation of the eQTL data was provided by the UK Medical Research Council and the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services project Z01 AG000932-02. Funding support for the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment (SAGE) was provided through the NIH Genes, Environment and Health Initiative [GEI] (U01 HG004422). SAGE is one of the genome-wide association studies funded as part of the Gene Environment Association Studies (GENEVA) under GEI. Assistance with phenotype harmonization and genotype cleaning, as well as with general study coordination, was provided by the GENEVA Coordinating Center (U01 HG004446). Assistance with data cleaning was provided by the National Center for Biotechnology Information. Support for collection of data sets and samples was provided by the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA; U10 AA008401), the Collaborative Genetic Study of Nicotine Dependence (COGEND; P01 CA089392) and the Family Study of Cocaine Dependence (FSCD; R01 DA013423). Funding support for genotyping, which was performed at the Johns Hopkins University Center for Inherited Disease Research, was provided by the NIH GEI (U01HG004438), the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the NIH contract ‘High throughput genotyping for studying the genetic contributions to human disease’ (HHSN268200782096C). The data sets used for the analyses described in this manuscript were obtained from dbGaP at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/gap/cgi-bin/study.cgi?study_ id = phs000092.v1.p1 through dbGaP accession number phs000092.v1.p. None of the funding agencies for this project (NINDS, NIMH, the Tourette Syndrome Association and the Judah Foundation) had any influence or played any role in (1) the design or conduct of the study; (2) management, analysis or interpretation of the data; and (3) preparation, review or approval of the manuscript.
- Tourette's syndrome
- neurodevelopmental disorder