Our objectives were to establish a methodology for surveillance of ciprofloxacin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and gentamicin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CPRE and GNRE, respectively) in cattle and to study the prevalence and risk factors for carriage of these bacteria in a national survey. This was a point prevalence study conducted from July to October 2013 in Israel. Stool samples were collected from 1,226 cows in 123 sections of 40 farms of all production types. The number of CPRE- and GNRE-positive cows was highest in quarantine stations and fattening farms and was lowest in pasture farms (p < 0.01). The number of CPRE- and GNRE-positive cows was lowest in dairy farm sections containing adult cows (>25 months) and highest in calves (<4 months) (p < 0.001). In bivariate analysis, other variables that were significant risk factors for CPRE and GNRE carriage included fewer troughs, crowding, lack of manure cleaning, and recent arrival of new calves. Antimicrobial prophylaxis was given almost exclusively to calves and was associated with a higher prevalence of carriers (p < 0.001). Compared to the use of nonselective media (MacConkey agar alone), the use of selective media (MacConkey agar with 10 μg/ml of ciprofloxacin or 5 μg/ml of gentamicin) increased the sensitivity of screening for CPRE and GNRE by 6.6- and 13.5-fold, respectively. CPRE and GNRE were identified in 609 (49.7%) and 840 (68.5%) samples, respectively. This study provides novel data regarding both the epidemiology of CPRE and GNRE carriage in livestock and the microbiological methodology for their surveillance.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2017.
- veterinary microbiology