Global assessment of marine biodiversity potentially threatened by offshore hydrocarbon activities

Rubén Venegas-Li*, Noam Levin, Lucía Morales-Barquero, Kristin Kaschner, Cristina Garilao, Salit Kark

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Increasing global energy demands have led to the ongoing intensification of hydrocarbon extraction from marine areas. Hydrocarbon extractive activities pose threats to native marine biodiversity, such as noise, light, and chemical pollution, physical changes to the sea floor, invasive species, and greenhouse gas emissions. Here, we assessed at a global scale the spatial overlap between offshore hydrocarbon activities and marine biodiversity (>25,000 species, nine major ecosystems, and marine protected areas), and quantify the changes over time. We discovered that two-thirds of global offshore hydrocarbon activities occur in areas within the top 10% for species richness, range rarity, and proportional range rarity values globally. Thus, while hydrocarbon activities are undertaken in less than one percent of the ocean's area, they overlap with approximately 85% of all assessed species. Of conservation concern, 4% of species with the largest proportion of their range overlapping hydrocarbon activities are range restricted, potentially increasing their vulnerability to localized threats such as oil spills. While hydrocarbon activities have extended to greater depths since the mid-1990s, we found that the largest overlap is with coastal ecosystems, particularly estuaries, saltmarshes and mangroves. Furthermore, in most countries where offshore hydrocarbon exploration licensing blocks have been delineated, they do not overlap with marine protected areas (MPAs). Although this is positive in principle, many countries have far more licensing block areas than protected areas, and in some instances, MPA coverage is minimal. These findings suggest the need for marine spatial prioritization to help limit future spatial overlap between marine conservation priorities and hydrocarbon activities. Such prioritization can be informed by the spatial and quantitative baseline information provided here. In increasingly shared seascapes, prioritizing management actions that set both conservation and development targets could help minimize further declines of biodiversity and environmental changes at a global scale.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)2009-2020
Number of pages12
JournalGlobal Change Biology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 John Wiley & Sons Ltd


  • energy
  • marine biodiversity
  • ocean
  • offshore hydrocarbon
  • oil and gas
  • species richness


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