Increasing global energy demands have led to the ongoing intensification of hydrocarbon extraction from marine areas. Hydrocarbon extractive activities pose threats to native marine biodiversity, such as noise, light, and chemical pollution, physical changes to the sea floor, invasive species, and greenhouse gas emissions. Here, we assessed at a global scale the spatial overlap between offshore hydrocarbon activities and marine biodiversity (>25,000 species, nine major ecosystems, and marine protected areas), and quantify the changes over time. We discovered that two-thirds of global offshore hydrocarbon activities occur in areas within the top 10% for species richness, range rarity, and proportional range rarity values globally. Thus, while hydrocarbon activities are undertaken in less than one percent of the ocean's area, they overlap with approximately 85% of all assessed species. Of conservation concern, 4% of species with the largest proportion of their range overlapping hydrocarbon activities are range restricted, potentially increasing their vulnerability to localized threats such as oil spills. While hydrocarbon activities have extended to greater depths since the mid-1990s, we found that the largest overlap is with coastal ecosystems, particularly estuaries, saltmarshes and mangroves. Furthermore, in most countries where offshore hydrocarbon exploration licensing blocks have been delineated, they do not overlap with marine protected areas (MPAs). Although this is positive in principle, many countries have far more licensing block areas than protected areas, and in some instances, MPA coverage is minimal. These findings suggest the need for marine spatial prioritization to help limit future spatial overlap between marine conservation priorities and hydrocarbon activities. Such prioritization can be informed by the spatial and quantitative baseline information provided here. In increasingly shared seascapes, prioritizing management actions that set both conservation and development targets could help minimize further declines of biodiversity and environmental changes at a global scale.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by the Australia Research Council (ARC) Centre of Excellence for Environmental Decisions (CEED). RV is funded by an Australian International Student Postgraduate Scholarship and supported by a Postgraduate Award from the Costa Rican Ministry of Science, Technology and Telecommunications, and ARC CEED. SK is an ARC Future Fellow. CG acknowledges support from the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety on behalf of the German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN – Az: Z 1.2‐532 02/2015/7).
Centre of Excellence for Environmental Decisions, Australian Research Council; Costa Rican Ministry of Science, Technology and Telecommunications; Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety, Grant/Award Number: Z 1.2‐532 02 and /2015/7
© 2019 John Wiley & Sons Ltd
- marine biodiversity
- offshore hydrocarbon
- oil and gas
- species richness