The hematopoietic factor and inflammatory cytokine GM-CSF is involved in PNS and CNS injury and disease, and in macrophage and microglia function regulation. We presently document that injury to PNS axons induces in vivo production of GM-CSF-inhibitor and GM-CSF-augmenter activities. GM-CSF-inhibitor activity was detected in extract and conditioned medium (CM) of injured PNS but not in extract of intact PNS, and was removed from CM by GM-CSF affinity chromatography, suggesting it is carried by a secreted GM-CSF binding molecule. CM further displayed GM-CSF-augmenter activity along with GM-CSF-inhibitor activity but at contrasting concentrations; augmentation at lowest and inhibition at highest. GM-CSF activity is thus regulated during Wallerian degeneration (WD); augmenter activity characterizes the onset and inhibitor activity the later stages of WD.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This project was supported by the Israel Science Foundation (grant no. 100/98). We thank Dr. A.R. Dunn for his generous gift of GM-CSF knockout mice and Dr. R. Murray for his generous gift of GMRβc knockout mice.
- Axonal injury
- GM-CSF receptor
- Wallerian degeneration