A strictly anaerobic, moderately halophilic, gram-negative bacterium was isolated from a highly saline oil field brine. The bacterium was a non- spore-forming, nonmotile rod, appearing singly, in pairs, or occasionally as long chains, and measured 0.3 to 0.4 by 2.6 to 4 μm. The bacterium had a specific requirement for NaCl and grew at NaCl concentrations of between 6 and 24%, with optimal growth at 9% NaCl. The isolate grew at temperatures of between 22 and 51°C and pH values of between 5.6 and 8.0. The doubling time in a complex medium containing 10% NaCl was 9 h. Growth was inhibited by chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and penicillin but not by cycloheximide or azide. Fermentable substrates were predominantly carbohydrates. The end products of glucose fermentation were acetate, ethanol, CO2, and H2. The major components of the cellular fatty acids were C(14:0), C(16:0), C(16:1), and C(17:0 cyc) acids. The DNA base composition of the isolate was 34 mol% G+C. Oligonucleotide catalog and sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA showed that strain VS-752(T) was most closely related to Haloanaerobium praevalens GSL(T) (ATCC 33744), the sole member of the genus Haloanaerobium. We propose that strain VS-752 (ATCC 51327) be established as the type strain of a new species, Haloanaerobium salsugo, in the genus Haloanaerobium.