Heavy Thermal Dark Matter from a New Collision Mechanism

Eric David Kramer, Eric Kuflik, Noam Levi, Nadav Joseph Outmezguine, Joshua T. Ruderman

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19 Scopus citations


We propose a new thermal freeze-out mechanism that results in dark matter masses exceeding the unitarity bound by many orders of magnitude, without violating perturbative unitarity or modifying the standard cosmology. The process determining the relic abundance is χζ^{†}→ζζ, where χ is the dark matter candidate. For m_{ζ}<m_{χ}<3m_{ζ}, χ is cosmologically long-lived and scatters against the exponentially more abundant ζ. Therefore, such a process allows for exponentially heavier dark matter for the same interaction strength as a particle undergoing ordinary 2→2 freeze-out, or equivalently, exponentially weaker interactions for the same mass. We demonstrate this mechanism in a leptophilic dark matter model, which allows for dark matter masses up to 10^{9}  GeV.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number081802
JournalPhysical Review Letters
Issue number8
StatePublished - 22 Feb 2021

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© 2021 authors. Published by the American Physical Society.


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