Background The clinical use of iodinated radiocontrast agents or gadolinium for renal perfusion imaging is limited in the presence of renal dysfunction. We have previously demonstrated the feasibility of hemodynamic response imaging (HRI), a functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method combined with hypercapnia and hypercapnic-hyperoxia, for monitoring changes in liver perfusion and hemodynamics. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of HRI for monitoring changes in renal perfusion and hemodynamics. Methods Renal HRI maps were acquired during graded hypercapnia (95% air + 5% CO2) and hypercapnic-hyperoxia (95% O2 + 5% CO2) in control mice. The utility of HRI for monitoring changes in renal perfusion and oxygenation was evaluated using pharmacological inhibition of nitric oxide synthase and cycloxygenase as well as in rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in mice. HRI results were further interpreted using Doppler ultrasound (US).ResultsRenal HRI maps revealed pronounced signal-intensity changes in response to both hypercapnia and hypercapnic-hyperoxia, reflecting intense vascular reactivity. These changes were significantly attenuated following the pharmacological intervention and during AKI, corresponding with hampered perfusion dynamics, as confirmed by Doppler US. Conclusions The applicability of the non-invasive HRI method suggests its potential use for the evaluation of renal perfusion and vascular reactivity, excluding the need for contrast-agent administration.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by a grant from the Israel Science Foundation to R.A. (1243/10) and to J.H.A. (891/08).
- acute kidney injury
- kidney imaging
- renal blood flow