The potential use of nanomaterials in medicine offers opportunities for novel therapeutic approaches to treating complex disorders. For that reason, a new branch of science, named nanotoxicology, which aims to study the dangerous effects of nanomaterials on human health and on the environment, has recently emerged. However, the toxicity and risk associated with nanomaterials are unclear or not completely understood. The development of an adequate experimental strategy for assessing the toxicity of nanomaterials may include a rapid/express method that will reliably, quickly, and cheaply make an initial assessment. One possibility is the characterization of the hemocompatibility of nanomaterials, which includes their hemolytic activity as a marker. In this review, we consider various factors affecting the hemolytic activity of nanomaterials and draw the reader’s attention to the fact that the formation of a protein corona around a nanoparticle can significantly change its interaction with the red cell. This leads us to suggest that the nanomaterial hemolytic activity in the buffer does not reflect the situation in the blood plasma. As a recommendation, we propose studying the hemocompatibility of nanomaterials under more physiologically relevant conditions, in the presence of plasma proteins in the medium and under mechanical stress.
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- hemolytic activity
- red blood cells